Chetan Nikhare, Ph.D.

Chetan Nikhare, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering
233 AMIC Building

Mailing Address:
AMIC BUILDING
5350 TECHNOLOGY DRIVE
ERIE PA 16510

Dr. Chetan Nikhare is an Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Penn State Erie, The Behrend College. He earned a B.E. in Mechanical Engineering from Nagpur University, India in 2003, M.Tech. in Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India in 2006, and the Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Deakin University, Australia in 2010.

Dr. Nikhare joined the Penn State Behrend faculty in August 2012. Prior to joining the faculty, he worked as a Post-Doctoral Research Associate in Mechanical Engineering Department at University of New Hampshire. To date, he has performed different aspects of numerical and analytical modeling for material undergoing mechanical processes. He learned constitutive modeling of mild steel and advanced high strength steels and microstructural modeling during his graduate and post-graduate studies. His research interest are, but not limited to, experiments and numerical simulation of sheet metal and bulk forming in various deformation mode, fatigue and fracture, hydroforming and analytical modeling of material mechanics and processes.

Patents

  • C. Nikhare, Die for reducing springback and process thereof, US 20150059427 A1 (application online; application number: US 14/465,920) (pending)

Professional Membership

  • Member of ASME
  • Member of Sheet Metal Forming Research Association (SMFRA), India
  • Member of the Australian Research Network for Advanced Materials (ARNAM)
  • Member of AutoCRC, Australia

Active Participation in Professional and Learned Societies

  • Session Chair/Co-Chair for ASME Conference, 2012, 2013, 2014
  • Session Chair for IDDRG Conference 2015
  • Committee Chair for Recruitment and Retention
  • Committee Chair for ASME-Erie Chapter

Reviewer

  • International Journal of Material Forming
  • Finite Elements in Analysis and Design
  • ASME – Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
  • Journal of Engineering Manufacture
  • British Journal of Applied Science and technology
  • Engineering Science and Technology An International Journal
  • Ingenieria e investigacion
  • Journal of Materials Design and Applications
  • Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
  • Journal of Scientific Research and Reports
  • World Journal of Engineering and Physical Sciences
  • Internationa Deep Drawing Research Group  2012, 2015
  • ASME – International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
  • ASME – International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition 2013

Sustainable and Efficient Manufacturing Processes, Electrically Assisted Forming, Sheet Metal forming and Hydroforming, Micro-forming, Multi-scale modeling, Thermo-mechanical modeling, Analytical modeling, DRX modeling, Fatigue and fracture

A Holistic Design Approach for Integrated Learning in Manufacturing Education, ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition - 2022
Collaborators: Faisal Aqlan; Daniell DiFrancesca; Qi Dunsworth; Matthew Swinarski; Mohammad Rasouli

Deformation Behavior of Advanced High Strength Steel With Different Strain Hardening Exponents During Tube Hydroforging, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering - 2022
Collaborator: Jeremy Fischer, Author

Effect of axial displacement on non-circular tube shaping in hydroforging, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing - 2022
Collaborator: Jeremy Fischer, Author

Effect of pressurization and annealing on hole expansion, ASME: Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering - 2022

Influence of drawbead geometry and blank holder force on the dual phase formability, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology - 2022
Collaborators: Alex Raimundo de Oliveira, Author; Sergio Fernando Lajarin, Co-Author; Claudimir José Rebeyca, Co-Author; Ravilson Antonio Chemin Filho, Co-Author; Paulo Victor Prestes Marcondes, Co-Author

Investigating fracture failure in origami-based sheet metal bending, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology - 2022
Collaborators: Muhammad Ali Ablat, Author; Ala’aldin Alafaghani, Co-Author; Jian-Qiao Sun, Co-Author; Ala Qattawi, Co-Author

Numerical Study on the Effect of Oscillation on the Deformation Behavior of Single Point Incremental Formed Part, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering - 2022

The Anisotropic Yield Surface of Cellular Materials, The Journal of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS) - 2022
Collaborators: Kaitlynn Conway, Author; Zachary Romanick, Co-Author; Lea Cook, Co-Author; Luis Morales, Co-Author; Jonathan Despeaux, Co-Author; Marcus Ridlehuber, Co-Author; Christian Fingar, Co-Author; Daquan Doctor, Co-Author; Garrett Pataky, Co-Author

A numerical study on effect of tool roller rotation on channel springback, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2021

A numerical study on springback of a channel through the oscillation of punch, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2021
Collaborators: Tanya Buddi, Co-Author; Nitin Kotkunde, Co-Author; Swadesh Kumar Singh, Co-Author

Effect of die velocity on tube deformation mechanics during low pressure tube hydroforming process sequence variation, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2021
Collaborators: Tanya Buddi, Co-Author; Nitin Kotkunde, Co-Author; Swadesh Kumar Singh, Co-Author

Prediction of Hot Deformation Behaviors Under Multiaxial Loading Using Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman Damage Model for Inconel 718 Alloy Thin Sheet, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2021
Collaborators: Gauri Mahalle, Author; Nitin Kotkunde, Co-Author; Amit Kumar Gupta, Co-Author; Swadesh Kumar Singh, Co-Author

Residual formability of single point incrementally formed part, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2021

A numerical analysis on microtube hydroforging, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies TMPT - 2021

An analysis of tube nosing through rotary tool, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies TMPT - 2021

Channel deformation of bilayer material using tool rollers: Part I-Springback, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies TMPT - 2021

Channel deformation of bilayer material using tool rollers: Part II-Effect of layer thickness on springback, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies TMPT - 2021

Effect of material discontinuity on springback in sheet metal bending, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies TMPT - 2021
Collaborators: Nitin Kotkunde, Co-Author; Swadesh Kumar Singh, Co-Author

Prediction of fracture limits of ni-cr based alloy under warm forming condition using ductile damage models and numerical method, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China - 2021
Collaborators: Ayush Morchhale, Author; Anand Badrish, Co-Author; Nitin Kotkunde, Co-Author; Swadesh Kumar Singh, Co-Author; Navneet Khanna, Co-Author; Ambuj Saxena, Co-Author

Fundamentals in sheet and tube forming: material characterization, conventional and novel processes and involved mechanics in Book Title: Materials forming, machining, and post processing, Springer Publishing - 2020

A numerical study on channel deformation and springback using tool rollers, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2020

Effect of metal-composite layer thickness on springback after U-bending, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2020

Effect of thickness on tube deformation mechanics during low pressure tube hydroforming process sequence variation, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2020

Experimental investigation on forming limit curve at elevated temperature through dome and biaxial test, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2020
Collaborators: Evan Teculver, Co-Author; Faisal Aqlan, Co-Author

A mini review on the degradation of young’s modulus in steels, Journal of Mineral and Material Science - 2020
Collaborator: Jeremy Fischer, Author

A short review on forming limit curve, Journal of Mineral and Material Science - 2020
Collaborator: Michael Zimmerman, Author

Numerical study on variation of chord modulus on the springback of high strength steels , The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology - 2020
Collaborators: Sérgio Lajarin; Ravilson Filho; Claudimir Rebeyka; Paulo Marcondes

Springback reduction by using tool rollers, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing - 2020

A numerical study on bending and springback of sheet metal with material discontinuity, Proceedings of NUMIFORM - 2019

An experimental study on direct current dieless drawing of 4130 steel tubes, Proceedings of ASME: International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2019
Collaborators: Paul McMahon, Co-Author; Faisal Aqlan, Co-Author

Bending and springback analysis on sheet metal material discontinuity, Proceedings of ASME: International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2019

Buckling of tube for tube hydroforging, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2019

Deformation mechanics of tube in variation of process sequence during low pressure tube hydroforming, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2019

Experimental analysis of rotational tooling on tube flaring, Proceedings of NUMIFORM - 2019
Collaborator: Elizabeth Mamros, Author

Experimental study on residual formability of single point incrementally formed part, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2019

Mechanical properties of 3D printed fiber reinforced thermoplastic, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2019
Collaborators: Seyed Hamid Reza Sanei; Zach Lash; Josh Servey; Frank Gardone

Pressurization and annealing effect analysis through hole expansion, Proceedings of ASME: International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2019

Springback analysis of hybrid materials created through alternate layup processes, Proceedings of ASME: International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2019
Collaborator: Elizabeth Mamros, Author

A numerical study on rotational tube flaring process, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2018

Acoustic signal analysis for prediction of flank wear during conventional milling, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2018
Collaborators: Travis Roney, Author; Anthony Bauccio, Co-Author; Derek Shaffer, Co-Author; Paige Lorson, Co-Author; Ihab Ragai, Co-Author; David Loker, Co-Author

Effect of preform during low pressure tube hydroforming, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2018
Collaborator: Ashley Trott, Author

Outer diameter to thickness ratio effect on tube flaring behavior, Proceedings of ASME: International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2018
Collaborator: Bradley Pier

Springback analysis in hybrid material deformation, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2018
Collaborator: Elizabeth Mamros, Author

Tube buckling – An advantage to tube shaping, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2018

An analysis on bilayer tube flaring, Applied Mechanics and Materials - 2018

An Investigation on Square Tube Forming using a Reuleaux triangle, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering - 2018
Collaborator: Ryan Horstman, Author

Analysis of hole expansion limit through biaxial test, Materials Today: Proceedings - 2018

Dependence of plastic strain and microstructure on elastic modulus reduction in advanced high strength steels, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering - 2018
Collaborators: Sérgio Lajarin, Author; P Marcondes, Co-Author

Experiment and predictions of strain and stress based failure limits for advanced high strength steel, Materials Today: Proceedings - 2018

Experimental and numerical analysis on bilayer tube forming, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering - 2018
Collaborator: John Olevnik, Author

Experimental and numerical investigation of forming limits differences in biaxial and dome test, ASME: Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering - 2018

Experimental investigation on tube flaring with a rotating tool, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering - 2018
Collaborator: Elizabeth Mamros, Author

Numerical analysis on the effect of thickness on biaxial tension limits, Materials Today: Proceedings - 2018

Yield identification by passing an electric current, Materials Today: Proceedings - 2018
Collaborator: Stephen Lester

Analysis of forming limits in biaxial and dome test, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2017

Springback analysis in bilayer material bending, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2017

Tube forming using Reuleaux traingle, Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing - 2017
Collaborators: Hayden Seibert; Laurentiu Petrut

Understanding acoustic emission for different metal cutting machinery and operations, Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing - 2017
Collaborators: Chris Conklin; David Loker

Evaluation of quenching methods for the purpose of acoustic data collection, Procedia Manufacturing - July, 2017
Collaborators: Travis Roney; Samantha Muhhuku; Ihab Ragai; David Loker

Forming limit differences in hemispherical dome and biaxial test during equi-biaixal tension on cruciform, ASME: Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology - July, 2017
Collaborators: Emmett Vorisek; John Nolan; John Roth

Buckling in low pressure tube hydroforming , SME: Journal of Manufacturing Processes - June, 2017
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

A numerical analysis on forming limits during spiral and concentric single point incremental forming, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering - February, 2017
Collaborators: M Gipiela, Author; V Amauri; P Marcondes, Co-Author

An investigation of tube forming using reuleaux triangle, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2016 Conference - 2016

Comparison of forming limits in tube and sheet forming, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2016 Conference - 2016
Collaborator: Rajasheker Gone

Forming limits prediction during tube hydroforming, sheet hydroforming and stamping processes for robust design, Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced and Agile Manufacturing and Agile Software Development - 2016
Collaborator: K Narasimhan

Hole expansion and strain evolution during biaxial tension, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2016 Conference - 2016
Collaborator: John Nolan

Parametric study on wall springback in long channels, Proceedings, ASME 2016 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2016

Understanding the differences in hemispherical dome and biaxial test during equi-biaixal tension on cruciform, Proceedings of ASME: International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2016
Collaborators: Emmett Vorisek; John Nolan; John Roth

Effect of biaxial arm velocity on hole expansion, Proceedings, ASME 2016 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2016
Collaborators: P McDonald; S Beatty; John Roth

Two dimensional complex shape analyses during low pressure tube hydroforming, International Journal of Advanced Materials Manufacturing & Characterization - September, 2016
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Prediction of springback in long channels, Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters) - December, 2015

An investigation on elastic recovery and residual hoop stress in steel-aluminum rings, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2015 Conference - 2015

Direct electric current spot treatment’s effect on springback of 90 degree bent 2024-T3 aluminum, Proceedings, ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2015
Collaborators: Brandt Ruszkiewicz, Author; Christopher Scriva, Co-Author; Zachary Reese, Co-Author; John Roth, Co-Author; Ihab Ragai, Co-Author

Effect of toolpath on the springback of 2024-T3 aluminum during single point incremental forming, Proceedings, ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2015
Collaborators: Zachary Reese; Brandt Ruszkiewicz; John Roth, Co-Author

Investigation of acoustic signals during W1 tool steel quenching, Proceedings, ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2015
Collaborators: Ihab Ragai, Co-Author; David Loker, Co-Author; Shannon Sweeney, Co-Author; Chris Conklin, Co-Author; John Roth, Co-Author

Investigation of strain development in various tube thicknesses to diameter ratio during tube flaring process, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2015 Conference - 2015

Mechanical Behavior of Annealed AA5083 Alloy, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2015 Conference - 2015
Collaborator: William Trozzo, Author

Numerical comparison of frontal crash test on heat treated tube, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2015 Conference - 2015

Prediction of springback in long channels, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2015 Conference - 2015

Study of acoustics signals and mechanical properties dependence during cold drawn A36 steel quenching , Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2015 Conference - 2015
Collaborators: Nicholas Erich, Author; Chris Conklin, Co-Author; David Loker, Co-Author

Formability enhancement in titanium tube-flaring by controlling the deformation-path, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering - October, 2015
Collaborators: Yannis Korkolis, Co-Author; Brad Kinsey, Co-Author

A new approach to form square cup, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2014 Conference - 2014
Collaborator: Matthew Ihrig, Author

Effect of EAM pulsed current on 1450 MPa martensitic steel, Proceedings, ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2014
Collaborators: John Roth, Co-Author; Dennie Pearson, Co-Author; Dae-Ho Yang, Co-Author; Hyun-Woo Lee, Co-Author; Sung-Tae Hong, Co-Author; Megan Lobdell, Author

Effect of prestrain on electric flow through the AA 5083 material, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2014 Conference - 2014
Collaborators: John Roth, Co-Author; Joseph Humphery, Author

Experimental and numerical analysis on strain development during hole expansion, Proceedings, Brasilian Deep Drawing Research Group Congress - 2014
Collaborators: M Gipiela, Author; N Woellner, Co-Author; P Marcondes, Co-Author

Experimental and numerical investigation of hole expansion on CPW800 steel, Proceedings, Numisheet - 2014
Collaborators: M Gipiela, Author; P Marcondes, Co-Author

Experimental investigation of annealed 5083 aluminum alloy, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2014 Conference - 2014
Collaborator: William Trozzo, Author

Formability enhancement in titanium tube flaring by controlling the deformation path, Proceedings, ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2014
Collaborators: Brad Kinsey, Co-Author; Yannis Korkollis, Co-Author

Investigation of strain development and hole expansion ratio in mild steel and AA 5083, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group 2014 Conference - 2014
Collaborator: Stephen Lester, Author

An electric touch for aluminum springback elimination - 2013
Collaborators: M Lobdell; John Roth

An investigation of anisotropic behavior on 5083 aluminum alloy using electric current, Procedings, American Society of Mechanical Engineering International Manufacturing Sceince and Engineering Conference - 2013
Collaborators: Abram Pleta, Author; Matthew Krugh, Co-Author; John Roth, Co-Author

Comparison of electrical and thermal effects on AA 5083 aluminum ally, Proceedings, IDDRG2013 - 2013
Collaborators: John Roth; A Pleta

Electric assisted aluminum 5083 alloy cup forming, Proceedings, ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2013
Collaborators: John Roth; S Lester, Author

Electric pulsing on 1500 series dual phase steel, Proceedings, ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2013
Collaborators: John Roth; M Lobdell, Author

Parallel deformation of the metals, Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Materials Science - 2013

Pressurization system in low pressure tube hydroforming, Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Materials Science - 2013

Influence of blank holding force on the forming limits of DP590 steel, Proceedings, IDDRG2012 - 2012
Collaborators: R Filho; L Tigrinho; R Marcondes

Numerical analysis of restrike process on Al-2008-T4 aluminum alloy square pan drawing, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group - 2012
Collaborators: Yannis Korkolis; Brad Kinsey

Numerical investigation of residual formability and deformation localization during continuous-bending-under-tension, Proceedings, ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2012
Collaborators: Y Korkolis; B Kinsey

Springback simulation with deformation induced heating, Proceedings, IDDRG2012 - 2012
Collaborator: S Dhote

Tube forming through flaring process with bend-unbend mechanics, Proceedings, International Deep Drawing Research Group - 2012

Investigation of deformation path during micro-tube flaring, Proceedings, ASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2011
Collaborators: W Wu; J Cao; B Kinsey

Novel hybrid material crash structure for front rail, Proceedings, ASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science & Engineering Conference - 2011
Collaborator: P Hodgson

A numerical approach on reduction of Young’s modulus during deformation of sheet metals, Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Materials Science - 2011

Necking and fracture of advanced high strength steels, Materials Science and Engineering A - 2011
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Die closing force in low pressure tube hydroforming, Journal of Materials Processing Technology - 2010
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Fracture of DP590 steel: A multi-scale modelling approach, Steel Research International - 2010
Collaborators: A Asgari; M Weiss; P Hodgson

An investigation of complex shapes during low pressure tube hydroforming, Proceedings, IDDRG2009 - 2009
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Crash investigation of side intrusion beam during high and low pressure tube hydroforming, Proceedings, TUBEHYDRO - 2009
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Multi-scale modeling of DP590 steel, Proceedings, National Conference on Sheet Metal Forming-2009 - 2009
Collaborators: A Asgari; M Weiss; P Hodgson

FEA comparison of high and low pressure tube hydroforming of TRIP steel, Computational Materials Science - 2009
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Experimental and numerical evaluation of forming and fracture behaviour of high strength steel, Proceedings, New Developments on Metallurgy and Applications of High Strength Steels - 2008
Collaborators: P Marcondes; M Weiss, Co-Author; P Hodgson

Hydroforming: An emerging manufacturing technology, Proceedings, International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing Technology (ICAMT) - 2008
Collaborators: N Birajdar; M Bhanage; K Narasimhan, Co-Author

Numerical investigation of high and low pressure tube hydroforming, Proceedings, Numisheet - 2008
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Numerical investigation of ramp and constant pressurization system during tube crushing process, Proceedings, International conference on Advances in Manufacturing Technology (ICAMT) - 2008
Collaborator: P Hodgson

Effect of prestrain on formability and forming limit strains during tube hydroforming, Computers, Materials, & Continua - 2008

Experimental and numerical investigation of low pressure tube hydroforming on stainless steel, Steel Research International - 2008
Collaborators: M Weiss; P Hodgson

Limit strains comparison during tube and sheet hydroforming and sheet stamping processes by numerical simulation, Computers, Materials, & Continua - 2008
Collaborator: K Narasimhan

Effect of prestrain on forming limit strains during tube hydroforming, Proceedings, North American Hydroforming Conference & Exhibition - 2006
Collaborator: K Narasimhan, Co-Author

Forming limit strains during hydroforming and sheet stamping processes, Proceedings, In house symposium on Materials Research 2006 - 2006

Hydroforming: A new forming technology, Proceedings, National Conference on Latest Developments in Welding Technology - WELDCON 2006 - 2006
Collaborator: K Narasimhan, Co-Author

Novel material composites for MEMS technology, Proceedings, Indo-Singapore Symposium on Advanced Functional Materials - 2006

Numerical comparison of limit strains during tube hydroforming and sheet stamping processes, Proceedings, ESAFORM 2006 - 2006
Collaborator: K Narasimhan, Co-Author

Ph D, Mechanical Engineering, Deakin University

MS, Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science , Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

BE, Mechanical Engineering, Nagpur University